In cryptography, a message authentication code (MAC), sometimes known as a tag, is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message—in other words, to confirm that the message came from the stated sender (its authenticity) and has not been changed. The MAC value protects both a message's data integrity as well as its authenticity, by allowing verifiers (who also possess the secret key) to detect any changes to the message content.
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Informally, a message authentication code system consists of three algorithms:
- A key generation algorithm selects a key from the key space uniformly at random.
- A signing algorithm efficiently returns a tag given the key and the message.
- A verifying algorithm efficiently verifies the authenticity of the message given the key and the tag. That is, return accepted when the message and tag are not tampered with or forged, and otherwise return rejected.
For a secure unforgeable message authentication code, it should be computationally infeasible to compute a valid tag of the given message without knowledge of the key, even if for the worst case, we assume the adversary can forge the tag of any message except the given one.
Formally, a message authentication code (MAC) system is a triple of efficient algorithms (G, S, V) satisfying:
- G (key-generator) gives the key k on input 1n, where n is the security parameter.
- S (signing) outputs a tag t on the key k and the input string x.
- V (verifying) outputs accepted or rejected on inputs: the key k, the string x and the tag t.
S and V must satisfy the following:
- Pr [ k ← G(1n), V( k, x, S(k, x) ) = accepted ] = 1.
A MAC is unforgeable if for every efficient adversary A
- Pr [ k ← G(1n), (x, t) ← AS(k, · )(1n), x ∉ Query(AS(k, · ), 1n), V(k, x, t) = accepted] < negl(n),
where AS(k, · ) denotes that A has access to the oracle S(k, · ), and Query(AS(k, · ), 1n) denotes the set of the queries on S made by A, which knows n. Clearly we require that any adversary cannot directly query the string x on S, since otherwise a valid tag can be easily obtained by that adversary.
While MAC functions are similar to cryptographic hash functions, they possess different security requirements. To be considered secure, a MAC function must resist existential forgery under chosen-plaintext attacks. This means that even if an attacker has access to an oracle which possesses the secret key and generates MACs for messages of the attacker's choosing, the attacker cannot guess the MAC for other messages (which were not used to query the oracle) without performing infeasible amounts of computation.
MACs differ from digital signatures as MAC values are both generated and verified using the same secret key. This implies that the sender and receiver of a message must agree on the same key before initiating communications, as is the case with symmetric encryption. For the same reason, MACs do not provide the property of non-repudiation offered by signatures specifically in the case of a network-wide shared secret key: any user who can verify a MAC is also capable of generating MACs for other messages. In contrast, a digital signature is generated using the private key of a key pair, which is public-key cryptography. Since this private key is only accessible to its holder, a digital signature proves that a document was signed by none other than that holder. Thus, digital signatures do offer non-repudiation. However, non-repudiation can be provided by systems that securely bind key usage information to the MAC key; the same key is in the possession of two people, but one has a copy of the key that can be used for MAC generation while the other has a copy of the key in a hardware security module that only permits MAC verification. This is commonly done in the finance industry.
Message integrity codes
The term message integrity code (MIC) is frequently substituted for the term MAC, especially in communications, to distinguish it from the use of MAC meaning MAC address (for media access control address). However, some authors use MIC to refer to a message digest, which is different from a MAC – a message digest does not use secret keys. This lack of security means that any message digest intended for use gauging message integrity should be encrypted or otherwise be protected against tampering. Message digest algorithms are created such that a given message will always produce the same message digest assuming the same algorithm is used to generate both. Conversely, MAC algorithms are designed to produce matching MACs only if the same message, secret key and initialization vector are input to the same algorithm. Message digests do not use secret keys and, when taken on their own, are therefore a much less reliable gauge of message integrity than MACs. Because MACs use secret keys, they do not necessarily need to be encrypted to provide the same level of assurance.
RFC 4949 recommends avoiding the term 'message integrity code' (MIC), and instead using 'checksum', 'error detection code', 'hash', 'keyed hash', 'message authentication code', or 'protected checksum'.
MAC algorithms can be constructed from other cryptographic primitives, like cryptographic hash functions (as in the case of HMAC) or from block cipher algorithms (OMAC, CCM, GCM, and PMAC). However many of the fastest MAC algorithms like UMAC-VMAC and Poly1305-AES are constructed based on universal hashing.
Intrinsically keyed hash algorithms such as SipHash are also by definition MACs; they can be even faster than universal-hashing based MACs.
Additionally, the MAC algorithm can deliberately combine two or more cryptographic primitives, so as to maintain protection even if one of them is later found to be vulnerable. For instance, in Transport Layer Security (TLS), the input data is split in halves that are each processed with a different hashing primitive (SHA-1 and SHA-2) then XORed together to output the MAC.
Various standards exist that define MAC algorithms. These include:
- FIPS PUB 113 Computer Data Authentication, withdrawn in 2002, defines an algorithm based on DES.
- FIPS PUB 198-1 The Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC)
- ISO/IEC 9797-1Mechanisms using a block cipher
- ISO/IEC 9797-2 Mechanisms using a dedicated hash-function
- ISO/IEC 9797-3 Mechanisms using a universal hash-function
- ISO/IEC 29192-6 Lightweight cryptography - Message authentication codes
ISO/IEC 9797-1 and -2 define generic models and algorithms that can be used with any block cipher or hash function, and a variety of different parameters. These models and parameters allow more specific algorithms to be defined by nominating the parameters. For example, the FIPS PUB 113 algorithm is functionally equivalent to ISO/IEC 9797-1 MAC algorithm 1 with padding method 1 and a block cipher algorithm of DES.
An example of MAC use
In this example, the sender of a message runs it through a MAC algorithm to produce a MAC data tag. The message and the MAC tag are then sent to the receiver. The receiver in turn runs the message portion of the transmission through the same MAC algorithm using the same key, producing a second MAC data tag. The receiver then compares the first MAC tag received in the transmission to the second generated MAC tag. If they are identical, the receiver can safely assume that the message was not altered or tampered with during transmission (data integrity).
However, to allow the receiver to be able to detect replay attacks, the message itself must contain data that assures that this same message can only be sent once (e.g. time stamp, sequence number or use of a one-time MAC). Otherwise an attacker could – without even understanding its content – record this message and play it back at a later time, producing the same result as the original sender.
Universal hashing and in particular pairwise independent hash functions provide a secure message authentication code as long as the key is used at most once. This can be seen as the one-time pad for authentication.
The simplest such pairwise independent hash function is defined by the random key key = (a,b), and the MAC tag for a message m is computed as tag = (am + b) mod p, where p is prime.
More generally, k-independent hashing functions provide a secure message authentication code as long as the key is used less than k times for k-ways independent hashing functions.
- Hash-based message authentication code (HMAC)
- ^The strongest adversary is assumed to have access to the signing algorithm without knowing the key. However, her final forged message must be different from any message she chose to query the signing algorithm before. See Pass's discussions before def 134.2.
- ^ abTheoretically, an efficient algorithm runs within probabilistic polynomial time.
- ^Pass, def 134.1
- ^Pass, def 134.2
- ^IEEE 802.11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications(PDF). (2007 revision). IEEE-SA. 12 June 2007. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2007.373646. ISBN978-0-7381-5656-9.
- ^Fred B Schneider, Hashes and Message Digests, Cornell University
- ^'VMAC: Message Authentication Code using Universal Hashing'. CFRG Working Group. CFRG Working Group. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- ^Jean-Philippe Aumasson & Daniel J. Bernstein (2012-09-18). 'SipHash: a fast short-input PRF'(PDF).
- ^'FIPS PUB 113 Computer Data Authentication'. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- ^'Federal Information Processing Standards Publications, Withdrawn FIPS Listed by Number'. Archived from the original on 2010-08-01. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- ^The Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC)
- ^ISO/IEC 9797-1 Information technology — Security techniques — Message Authentication Codes (MACs) — Part 1: Mechanisms using a block cipher
- ^ISO/IEC 9797-2 Information technology — Security techniques — Message Authentication Codes (MACs) — Part 2: Mechanisms using a dedicated hash-function
- ^ISO/IEC 9797-3 Information technology — Security techniques — Message Authentication Codes (MACs) — Part 3: Mechanisms using a universal hash-function
- ^ISO/IEC 29192-6 Information technology — Lightweight cryptography — Part 6: Message authentication codes (MACs)
- ^'Mac Security Overview', Mac® Security Bible, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2011-11-01, pp. 1–26, doi:10.1002/9781118257739.ch1, ISBN9781118257739
- ^Simmons, Gustavus (1985). 'Authentication theory/coding theory'. Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO 84. Berlin: Springer. pp. 411–431. ISBN00000000 Check
isbn=value: length (help).
- Goldreich, Oded (2001), Foundations of cryptography I: Basic Tools, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN978-0-511-54689-1
- Goldreich, Oded (2004), Foundations of cryptography II: Basic Applications (1. publ. ed.), Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press, ISBN978-0-521-83084-3
- Pass, Rafael, A Course in Cryptography(PDF), retrieved 31 December 2015
In this year, Samsung released Samsung Galaxy S10 and clamed to bring out its first 5G mobile phone in this summer. It attracts more and more users with Samsung phone upgrading every year. When it comes to backup Samsung files to the computer, most of Samsung users find it easy to transfer files to Windows computer/PC, but some users look for Samsung file transfer for Mac.
That is why we post this article. We hope Mac users can find an effective way to transfer files with these Samsung to Mac transfer tools.
Part 1. Easily Transfer Files with Professional Samsung File Transfer for Mac
Samsung Messages Backup is one of the best Professional Samsung file transfer tools on the market. Its Mac version can help users to manage their Samsung phone on the computer conveniently. With no technical background required, you can use this program easily.
The Key Features of Samsung Messages Backup for Mac
- Support to transfer contacts, call logs, SMS, photos, videos, music, books, and apps between Android phone and Mac.
- Support almost all Android phones on the market, including Samsung Galaxy, LG, Sony, Huawei, Xiaomi, HTC and so on (the latest Samsung Galaxy S10 is also included).
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- Support to edit contacts and send/read SMS on the computer.
- Preview and delete files in batches.
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- One click backup & restore your Samsung phone.
- 100% clean & safe. No data leaking out, no data loss.
How to Perform Samsung File Transfer on Mac with Samsung Messages Backup?
Please download the Mac version and launch the program on your Mac.
#1. Select what you like to transfer on Mac
Step 1. Connect Samsung phone to Mac via a USB cable. You can see the interface as below to show you a brief tutorial to enable USB debugging on your Samsung phone. Please go with it.
Step 2. Follow the prompts to make the program recognize your Samsung phone. Once done, you can enter the main interface as below. All the detected files are sorted in different folders on the left panel.
Step 3. Please open the folder that contains your wanted files. Preview the items on the interface and select the files that you want to transfer to Mac by ticking on the boxes. You can choose a part of files or all the items as you need.
Step 4. Click Export to transfer the chosen files from Samsung to Mac.
If you like to transfer files from Mac to Samsung, you can click Import to select files from a local folder and go with the simple prompts to transfer files to Samsung phone.
How To Link Messages To Mac
#2. One click backup your Samsung phone on Mac
Step 1. After entering the main interface, please go to Super Toolkit on the top menu bar. On this interface, you can see two features for one-click backup and restore.
Step 2. Tap on the Backup button, tick on the contents you want to backup and choose a local folder to store the backups. Then click Back Up to start the process.
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If you need to restore Samsung phone from a backup by one click, you can tap on Restore and select the backup record on your Mac. Then click Restore to retrieve files to your Samsung Galaxy.
Part 2. Official Samsung to Mac Transfer - Samsung Smart Switch
Samsung Smart Switch is a popular Samsung file transfer for Samsung users. The program developed its Mac version to help Mac users transfer Samsung files. With it, you can transfer contacts, call logs, messages, videos, photos, notes, calendars, device settings, and other files on Mac. The software supports Blackberry, iOS, and Android devices.
It allows you to sync contacts and calendars to the computer, backup & restore your whole Samsung device, or selectively backup a part of files to your Mac. However, it may be a little hard for some users to find out a file to transfer from the internal memory, because it does not support to preview the files before data transferring.
Here are the steps to transfer files with Samsung Smart Switch on Mac:
Free download Samsung Smart Switch here.
Step 1. Connect Samsung phone to your Mac via a USB cable.
Step 2. Launch the program on the Mac. You need to unlock your phone if it is locked. If it prompts you whether to allow access to the phone data, just click ALLOW on your Samsung Galaxy. Then, the program will recognize your Samsung Galaxy.
Step 3. On the main interface, you can click on the name of your phone, and you can see a folder beside the Internal memory, just open it.
Step 4. After open the internal memory, you can see a list of files. Please go to the folder that contains your wanted contents. Simply choose the items, drag them to a local folder. And the files you have chosen are now transferred to the Mac.
Part 3. Using A USB Cable with The Help of Android File Transfer
When it comes to transfer 10 pieces of photos, several media files or documents to the Mac, you can use Android File Transfer to help you find out your wanted Samsung files on the Mac. All you need is a USB cable and downloading Android File Transfer on your Mac.
However, contacts, call logs and text messages are not supported in this way. What's more, it may be a bit hard for some users to find out their wanted files for transferring.
Step 1. Download Android File Transfer on the Mac. Once done, drag it to the Applications folder.
Step 2. Connect Samsung device to the Mac via a USB cable. Please make sure that your device is unlocked. The software will detect your phone automatically. After that, you can see the name of your phone on the program interface on Mac.
Step 3. Click your device's name, you can see a list of files. Now please open a folder and select the items that you want to copy, drag them to a local folder. You can even drag and drop a folder from Samsung to the Mac. And the files you have chosen are now transferred to the computer.
This article covers two free tools (Smart Switch & Android File Transfer) and a professional Samsung file transfer software for Mac users to transfer files. However, the free tools are not user-friendly when you need to find out the files from a list of folders to copy to the Mac. Samsung Messages Backup can help you choose files much more effectively. Why not have a try:
Message Program For Mac Catalina